DescriptionAlign airplane with the runway centerline on final approach. The landing flap setting is made and a wind correction angle, is established if necessary. A stabilized (airspeed, approach descent angle and airplane configuration) final approach is established. At an appropriate altitude a transition to the landing pitch attitude is begun in a manner that will allow the airplane to touch down in the proper power-off stall pitch attitude. After touchdown the airplane is slowed to a normal taxi speed on the runway centerline and then taxied clear of the runway. Appropriate crosswind control is maintained throughout the final approach, landing and rollout.
ObjectiveTo develop the student’s ability to safely and accurately execute an approach, landing and rollout in normal and crosswind conditions.Procedure• Prepare for landing. Ensure before landing checklist is complete. Scan for traffic and make sure area is clear in your flight path.• Begin your descent. As you approach the position abeam your intended landing point, you should be at traffic pattern altitude. At this point, reduce power to 1500 RPM. Once below (85 KIAS), set flaps to 10°. Lower the nose to maintain 80 KIAS and begin descent and retrim.• Turn base. Check and listen for traffic on base leg and on extended runway centerline. Begin your base turn when the airplane has descended 100-200 feet and the landing point is approximately 45° behind the wing. Set flaps to 20° and continue descent at 70 KIAS and retrim.• Turn final. Make sure final approach path is clear and turn final to roll out 300-500 feet AGL. Set flaps to 30°. Use proper coordination of pitch and power to begin slowing to 60 KIAS continue descent and retrim.• Fly a stabilized approach. Use outside visual references (VASI/PAPI if available) to determine proper descent angle or glidepath. Use pitch for airspeed and power for altitude and continue to adjust to maintain approach path. If a crosswind exists, use aileron correction into the wind and use rudder to keep airplane aligned with centerline. “Heels on the floor and back” must be verbalized by the pilot flying on short final or go-around must be initiated.• Choose aiming point. The aiming point should be where the descent angle intersects the runway and adding the appropriate distance that will be travelled in the flare. The aiming point should have no apparent relative movement in the windscreen.• Begin the round out. Upon reaching short final when landing is assured, pull power to idle and begin to slow the aircraft by maintaining sight picture of aiming point. Approximately 5 to 10 feet above the runway gradually increase back pressure on the yoke and decrease the rate of descent as you focus your eyes towards the end of the runway. If crosswind exists, increase aileron deflection into the wind as airspeed decreases.• Begin the flare. The airplane should reach a near-zero rate of descent just above the runway surface and near stall speed. Try to hold the airplane off the ground by increasing back pressure. Stall warning horn should be audible at this time.• Touch down. Maintain a nose high attitude until the main wheels come in contact with the runway. Keep back pressure on the yoke as long as control pressure remains effective to provide aerodynamic braking.• Roll out. Maintain directional control on centerline using rudders and aileron deflection into the wind if crosswind exists. Minimal to no braking should be required to reach taxi speed. Exit runway when applicable and allow the airplane to completely cross the hold short lines. Complete after landing checklist.ACS Standards• Complete the appropriate checklist.• Make radio calls as appropriate.• Ensure the airplane is aligned with the correct/assigned runway or landing surface.• Scan the runway or landing surface and adjoining area for traffic and obstructions.Normal and Crosswind Approach and Landing (continued)• Consider the wind conditions, landing surface, obstructions, and select a suitable touchdown point.• Establish the recommended approach and landing configuration and airspeed, and adjust pitch• Maintain manufacturer’s published approach airspeed or in its absence not more than 1.3 , with wind gust factor applied.o Private: +10/-5 knotso Commercial: +/-5 knots• Maintain crosswind correction and directional control throughout the approach and landing.• Make smooth, timely, and correct control application during round out and touchdown.• Touch down at a proper pitch attitude, with no side drift, and with the airplane’s longitudinal axis aligned with and over the runway center/landing path.o Private: +400/-0 feeto Commercial: +200/-0 feet• Execute a timely go-around if the approach cannot be made within the tolerances specified above or for any other condition that may result in an unsafe approach or landing.• Utilize runway incursion avoidance procedures.